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Wisconsin H1N1v Links US H3N2v China H5N1 Swiss H1N1v
Recombinomics Commentary 21:15
January 8, 2012

The recent increase in novel influenza in the United States has led to a CDC request for all 50 states to increase surveillance.  In addition to 12 H3N2v (trH3N2 and H3N2pdm11) cases, there has also been a H1N2v (trH1N2) case as well as an H1N1v (trH1N1) case.  All 14 cases in 2011 as well as the 6 H3N2v cases in 2010 have a PB1 with E618D, which is in H1N1pdm09, or a H1N1pdm09 M gene signaling adaptation to human.  The most recent H3N2v (Iowa and West Virginia confirmed cluster) and H1N2v (A/Minnesota/19/2011 suspect cluster) cases have not had any reported swine exposure.

The H1N1v case (55M), A/Wisconsin/28/2011, had an occupational swine exposure, but many of the newly acquired polymorphisms of the internal genes are also present in the US H3N2v and H1N2v cases. 

However, newly acquired internal gene polymorphisms are also found in H5N1 cases in China (A/Guangdong-Shenzhen/1/2011,  A/Hubei/1/2010, A/Guangxi/1/2009) and Cambodia, as well as three H1N1v cases in Switzerland (A/Switzerland/9356/2009, A/Switzerland/5165/2010, A/Switzerland/4607377/2011) –see list here.

The acquisitions are via recombination and linked to wild bird sequences which raises concerns of rapid evolution in these novel influenza genomes.

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