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Paradigm Shift Intervention Monitoring
Fujian H5 In Woodstock Ontario In Atlantic
above map of worldwide migratory bird flyways (from Wetlands
International) highlights the concerns linked to the recent
report of H5 near Woodstock, Ontario, which is located in the above
Atlantic Americas Flyway..
the full serotype is unknown, yesterday’s CFIA presser indicated the
index farm had 4 barns and all symptomatic turkeys were in a flock of
12,000 which were housed in 1 barn. The death of 7500 turkeys
indicates the H5 is HPAI Fujian clade 18.104.22.168 and is likely H5N2 based
on the reports of widespread
infections of that serotype (see H5N2
map) in the Midwest (in the Mississippi Flyway depicted above).
number of recent
H5N2 confirmed turkey farms in Minnesota has increased to
eight. All were commercial farms with 3-5 barns and in 7 of the 8
the symptomatic turkeys were limited to the index barn, signaling
biosecurity levels that effectively limited spread but did not prevent
entry to the index farm. This pattern is similar to the first
commercial farm in the US infected with Fujian H5. The farm was
in Stanislaus County, California and had 14 barns (see zoomed H5N8
map), but symptoms and deaths were limited to the index barn in
spite of the close proximity of the other 13 barns.Similarly, the
repeated infection of farms in Minnesota is similar to the outbreaks in
Fraser Valley in December, 2014 where H5N2 infected 11 commercial farms
over a period of several weeks.
Fraser Valley outbreak led to enhanced surveillance in the US, where
H5N2 and H5N8 were quickly identified in wild birds in Whatcom County,
Washington less than 7 miles from Fraser Valley. The enhanced
surveillance in the US targeted the administrative Pacific Flyway which
identified H5 (H5N2, H5N8, H5N1) in 49
wild birds, which largely relied on swabs from hunter killed
birds. There have been no confirmations in the Pacific Flyway in
samples collected after January 23, when hunting season ended.
absence of enhanced surveillance also led to a failure to detect any
Fujian H5 outside of the Pacific Flyway until the first farm in
Minnesota was confirmed on March 4. Two wild birds (Canada geese)
were confirmed in Laramie County, Wyoming and Lyons County. Missouri
through routine surveillance (testing dead or dying wild birds) as well
as captive falcons who ate wild birds in Montana or Missouri signaling
the spread of H5N2 outside of the administrative Pacific Flyway.The
above flyway map divides North America into three flyways, which
incluse significant overlap between adjacent flyways. Most of the
H5 confirmations in the administrative Pacific Flyway were in the
overlapping area between the Pacific and Mississippi Flyway, and the
recent cases in the Midwest are in the overlapping region between the
Mississippi and Atlantic Flyway.
Woodstock, Ontario is located east of the overlap and is exclusively in
the Atlantic Flyway and at a significant distance from H5N2
confirmations in Minnesota and Missouri, once again signaling a
surveillance failure and the confirmation of H5 in a turkey farm prior
to reports in wild birds in the area.
absence of any enhanced surveillance in the United States and Canada is
a concern. Canada has yet to report Fujian H5 in any wild bird in
spite of reports of H5N2 in 12 farms in Fraser Valley as well as H5N1
in one backyard farm and the H5 in Woodstock. Similarly, the US
has not reported any cases in Pacific Flyway collections after the end
of hunting season, and wild bird reports in the Midwest has been
limited to dead or dying birds self.
has announced to test 150 hunter killed snow geese shot during the
spring season, and other states may be following suit, but the number
of planned tests is markedly below the enhanced testing in December and
January in the west. There are also plans to test fecal samples,
but initial testing in Minnesota resulted in a very low frequency of
influenza A positives, suggesting degradation in samples.
wild bird surveillance by the US and Canada outside of the Pacific
Flyway is long overdue.