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H5N1 Qinghai Strains Selected as Pandemic Vaccine Targets

Recombinomics Commentary

June 13, 2006

Two additional H5N1 sequences have been selected as targets for a pandemic vaccine.  Both are Qinghai strains.  One is from Qinghai and the other from Mongolia.  The Mongolia sequence is from A/Whooping swan/Mongolia/244/2005.  The HA and NA sequences were just released from the WHO private data base

The HA sequence from the Mongolian isolate has five polymorphisms that have a limited distribution in the public flu data base at Los Alamos.  These polymorphisms help define the HA gene selevted and also provide an informative travel history of the individual polymorphisms. One polymorphism, C163G is only present the Mongolian pandemic strain.  Another, T701C is only in the four isolates from Mongolia. 

G196A is initially found in China in HPAI H5N1 in 2000 and is in 2 isolates from Vietnam (see list of isolates below). Like Qinghai polymorphisms in other isolates, it is also in a series of Guangxi isolates. It is the “northern” subset of Qinghai strain isolates and found in Mongolia and Russia and is in the first isolate from Turkey (A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005) as well as a subset of Qinghai isolates (Italy, Germany, Iraq, Egypt, Czech Republic, and Nigeria).

The travel history of  the polymorphisms, C1261T is also listed below. 
The polymorphism made is database debut in 1984 in an H2N3 mallard in Canada.  However, it is present throughout the Americas and found in New Jersey in the United States and Brazil in South America.  In the Americas, it was exclusively found in H2 serotypes, but was in H2N1, H2H2, H2N3, H2N4, H2N5, H2N9.  The most recent isolate in the database is 2003.  However, that is more likely to be a reflection on the database than the absence of the H2 polymorphism.

C1261T made it data base debut in Asia in low path H5 (H5N3) in swans in Japan in 1996, the same year that high path H5N1 appeared in Guangdong.  In 2003 the polymorphism was in H5N1 in Vietnam in H5N1 with the classic HA cleavage site RERRRKKR found in the 1996 Guangdong goose.  The polymorphism was then detected in China in 2004 in adjacent Guangxi .and in 2005 in Hunan.

The polymorphism made its Qinghai strain debut in Mongolia and Novosibirsk, but was not in the isolates from Qinghai Lake.  This “northern version” of the Qinghai strain then was detected in Kurgan and Tula in Russia followed by Turkey in October of 2005.  It is in the only public sequence released by Weybridge.  However, the turkey/Turkey/1 sequence is listed in phylogenetic trees along with over 70 additional HA sequences from Europe.  As seen by the list from public sequences below, it is also in Italy, Germany, Czech Republic, Iraq, Egypt, and Nigeria.

The last polymorphism is C1492T. It however is much more limited. In the Qinghai strain, it is only in the Mongolian isolates. It too made its data base debut in a low path isolate. This one was in 2002 in an H5N2 mallard from Sweden.

In 2003 it moved into Vietnam and was once again in classical HPAI H5N1 with an HA cleavage site of RERRRKKR. It was also in one isolate from Hong Kong and one from Belgium (but the Belgium isolate was in an eagle being smuggled from Thailand). All the rest are Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos.  These isolates are all clade 1 and  include isolates from human, dog, cat, and tiger.

Adding Qinghai strains to the list of vaccine targets is useful because the Qinghai strains are being widely dispersed via long range migratory birds and have moved into China, India, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa.  H5N1 bird flu pandemic vaccine targets from Indonesia and Vietnam have been selected previously.


DQ447199    A/chicken/Egypt/960N3-004/2006               2006  H5N1   
DQ406728    A/chicken/Nigeria/641/2006                          2006  H5N1   
DQ515984    A/Cygnus olor/Czech Republic/5170/2006  2006  H5N1   
DQ435200    A/domestic cat/Iraq/820/2006                       2006  H5N1   
DQ435201    A/domestic goose/Iraq/812/2006                 2006  H5N1   
DQ464377    A/Egypt/2782-NAMRU3/2006                      2006  H5N1   
DQ435202    A/Iraq/207-NAMRU3/2006                            2006  H5N1   
DQ458992    A/mallard/Bavaria/1/2006                              2006  H5N1   
DQ449031    A/mallard/Italy/332/2006                                2006  H5N1   
AB233319    A/bar-headed goose/Mongolia/1/05             2005  H5N1   
DQ449632    A/chicken/Kurgan/05/2005                            2005  H5N1   
DQ323672    A/chicken/Kurgan/3/2005                              2005  H5N1   
DQ407519    A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005                                  2005  H5N1   
AB233320    A/whooper swan/Mongolia/3/05                    2005  H5N1   
AB233321    A/whooper swan/Mongolia/4/05                    2005  H5N1   
AB233322    A/whooper swan/Mongolia/6/05                    2005  H5N1   
ISDN140936  A/Whooping swan/Mongolia/244/2005       2005  H5N1   
DQ320893    A/chicken/Guangxi/2439/2004                      2004  H5N1   
DQ320883    A/duck/Guangxi/1311/2004                           2004  H5N1   
DQ320884    A/duck/Guangxi/1378/2004                           2004  H5N1   
DQ320885    A/duck/Guangxi/1586/2004                           2004  H5N1   
DQ320886    A/duck/Guangxi/1681/2004                           2004  H5N1   
DQ320887    A/duck/Guangxi/1793/2004                           2004  H5N1   
DQ320890    A/duck/Guangxi/2291/2004                           2004  H5N1   
DQ320892    A/duck/Guangxi/2396/2004                           2004  H5N1   
DQ320879    A/duck/Guangxi/668/2004                             2004  H5N1   
DQ320881    A/goose/Guangxi/1097/2004                        2004  H5N1   
DQ320882    A/goose/Guangxi/1198/2004                        2004  H5N1   
DQ320888    A/goose/Guangxi/1832/2004                        2004  H5N1   
Q320889    A/goose/Guangxi/2112/2004                           2004  H5N1   
DQ320891    A/goose/Guangxi/2383/2004                        2004  H5N1   
DQ320880    A/goose/Guangxi/914/2004                          2004  H5N1   
ISDN40326   A/Chicken/Viet Nam/Ncvd8/2003                 2003  H5N1   
ISDN38689   A/Duck/Viet Nam/Ncvd1/2002                      2002  H5N1   
AY651352    A/teal/China/2978.1/2002                               2002  H5N1   
AF501235    A/duck/Shanghai/1/2000                                2000  H5   
AF501234    A/duck/Shanghai/1/2000                                2000  H5   
DQ201829    A/Goose/Huadong/1/2000                            2000  H5N1 


DQ447199    A/chicken/Egypt/960N3-004/2006                2006  H5N1   
DQ406728    A/chicken/Nigeria/641/2006                           2006  H5N1   
DQ515984    A/Cygnus olor/Czech Republic/5170/2006   2006  H5N1   
DQ435200    A/domestic cat/Iraq/820/2006                        2006  H5N1   
DQ435201    A/domestic goose/Iraq/812/2006                  2006  H5N1   
DQ464377    A/Egypt/2782-NAMRU3/2006                       2006  H5N1   
DQ435202    A/Iraq/207-NAMRU3/2006                             2006  H5N1   
DQ458992    A/mallard/Bavaria/1/2006                              2006  H5N1   
DQ449031    A/mallard/Italy/332/2006                                 2006  H5N1   
DQ320910    A/chicken/Hunan/999/2005                            2005  H5N1   
DQ449632    A/chicken/Kurgan/05/2005                             2005  H5N1   
DQ323672    A/chicken/Kurgan/3/2005                               2005  H5N1   
DQ279301    A/chicken/Tula/10/2005                                  2005  H5N1   
DQ095630    A/Duck/Hunan/114/05                                     2005  H5N1   
DQ320902    A/duck/Hunan/127/2005                                 2005  H5N1   
DQ320903    A/duck/Hunan/139/2005                                 2005  H5N1   
DQ320904    A/duck/Hunan/149/2005                                 2005  H5N1   
DQ320906    A/duck/Hunan/157/2005                                 2005  H5N1   
DQ320907    A/duck/Hunan/160/2005                                 2005  H5N1   
DQ320908    A/duck/Hunan/166/2005                                 2005  H5N1   
DQ320909    A/duck/Hunan/182/2005                                 2005  H5N1   
DQ095631    A/Duck/Hunan/191/05                                     2005  H5N1   
DQ230522    A/duck/Novosibirsk/56/2005                          2005  H5N1   
DQ212792    A/goose/Novosibirsk/4/2005                         2005  H5N1   
DQ407519    A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005                                   2005  H5N1   
AB233320    A/whooper swan/Mongolia/3/05                     2005  H5N1   
AB233321    A/whooper swan/Mongolia/4/05                     2005  H5N1   
AB233322    A/whooper swan/Mongolia/6/05                     2005  H5N1   
ISDN140936  A/Whooping swan/Mongolia/244/2005        2005  H5N1   
ISDN48980   A/Chicken/Guang xi/12/2004                          2004  H5N1   
ISDN48989   A/Duck/Guang xi/13/2004                               2004  H5N1   
ISDN40326   A/Chicken/Viet Nam/Ncvd8/2003                  2003  H5N1   
DQ497678    A/chicken/Vietnam/19/2003                           2003  H5N1   
CY003992    A/mallard/Alberta/79/2003                              2003  H2N3   
CY003984    A/mallard/Alberta/149/2002                            2002  H2N4   
AY633196    A/mallard/Alberta/205/1998                            1998  H2N3   
CY003968    A/mallard/Alberta/205/1998                            1998  H2N3   
CY003976    A/mallard/Alberta/226/1998                            1998  H2N3   
AY633228    A/mallard/Alberta/226/1998                            1998  H2N3   
CY003960    A/blue-winged teal/Alberta/16/1997               1997  H2N9   
AY633364    A/pintail/Alberta/22/97                                      1997  H2N9   
AY633388    A/teal/Alberta/16/97                                          1997  H2N9   
CY003944    A/mallard/Alberta/201/1996                             1996  H2N3   
AY633180    A/mallard/Alberta/202/1996                             1996  H2N5   
CY003952    A/mallard/Alberta/202/1996                             1996  H2N5   
AB241616    A/swan/Hokkaido/4/96                                     1996  H5N3   
AB241617    A/swan/Hokkaido/51/96                                   1996  H5N3   
AB241618    A/swan/Hokkaido/67/96                                   1996  H5N3   
L11131      A/guinea/NJ/3070/91                                            1991  H2N2   
CY005413    A/semi-palmated sandpiper/Brazil/43/1990   1990  H2N1   
CY003936    A/mallard duck/Alberta/353/1988                    1988  H2N3   
L11135      A/mallard/Alberta/353/88                                      1988  H2N3   
CY003879    A/mallard duck/Alberta/376/1985                     1985  H2N3   
CY003871    A/mallard duck/Alberta/884/1984                     1984  H2N5  


ISDN121986  A/Cambodia/JP52a/2005                                2005  H5N1   
ISDN122146  A/chicken/Cambodia/022LC3b/2005             2005  H5N1   
DQ334760A/chicken/Thailand/Kanchanaburi/CK-160/20052005 H5N1   
DQ334776    A/chicken/Thailand/Nontaburi/CK-162/2005    2005  H5N1   
ISDN124038  A/Chicken/Viet Nam/NCVD09/2005                2005 H5N1   
ISDN124037  A/Chicken/Viet Nam/NCVD10/2005                2005 H5N1   
DQ497676    A/chicken/Vietnam/348/2005                             2005  H5N1   
ISDN124044  A/Duck/Viet Nam/NCVD01/2005                    2005  H5N1   
ISDN124040  A/Duck/Viet Nam/NCVD04/2005                    2005 H5N1   
ISDN124142  A/Duck/Viet Nam/NCVD05/2005                    2005  H5N1   
ISDN124035  A/Duck/Viet Nam/NCVD06/2005                    2005  H5N1   
ISDN124032  A/Duck/Viet Nam/NCVD07/2005                    2005  H5N1   
ISDN124030  A/Duck/Viet Nam/NCVD08/2005                    2005  H5N1   
DQ497674    A/duck/Vietnam/272/2005                                 2005  H5N1   
DQ497708    A/duck/Vietnam/283/2005                                 2005  H5N1   
DQ497689    A/duck/Vietnam/317/2005                                 2005  H5N1   
DQ497704    A/duck/Vietnam/376/2005                                 2005  H5N1   
DQ497688    A/duck/Vietnam/N-TB/2005                               2005  H5N1   
ISDN122147  A/goose/Cambodia/022b/2005                       2005  H5N1   
AB239125    A/Hanoi/30408/2005                                          2005  H5N1   
ISDN129400  A/Hanoi/30408/2005                                         2005  H5N1   
DQ497675    A/mallard/Vietnam/347/2005                             2005  H5N1   
DQ497677    A/mallard/Vietnam/352/2005                             2005  H5N1   
ISDN124042  A/Muscovy Duck/Viet Nam/NCVD02/2005     2005  H5N1   
DQ334768 A/quail/Thailand/Nakhon Pathom/QA-161/2005 2005  H5N1   
DQ372591    A/Thailand/NK165/2005                                     2005  H5N1   
ISDN119678  A/Viet Nam/HN30408/2005                              2005  H5N1   
ISDN117777  A/Viet Nam/JP4207/2005                                 2005  H5N1   
ISDN118371  A/Viet Nam/JPHN30321/2005                         2005  H5N1   
DQ497726    A/Vietnam/CL105/2005                                     2005  H5N1   
DQ497727    A/Vietnam/CL115/2005                                     2005  H5N1   
DQ497728    A/Vietnam/CL119/2005                                     2005  H5N1   
DQ497729    A/Vietnam/CL2009/2005                                  2005  H5N1   
AB233320    A/whooper swan/Mongolia/3/05                        2005  H5N1   
AB233321    A/whooper swan/Mongolia/4/05                        2005  H5N1   
AB233322    A/whooper swan/Mongolia/6/05                        2005  H5N1   
ISDN140936  A/Whooping swan/Mongolia/244/2005           2005  H5N1   
ISDN124036  AChicken/Viet Nam/NCVD12/2005               2005  H5N1   
AY651330    A/bird/Thailand/3.1/2004                                    2004  H5N1   
DQ236077    A/cat/Thailand/KU-02/04                                   2004  H5N1   
AY770991    A/chicken/Ayutthaya/Thailand/CU-23/04          2004  H5N1   
DQ083569    A/chicken/Ayutthaya/Thailand/CU-24/04         2004  H5N1   
DQ083568    A/chicken/Bangkok/Thailand/CU-20/04           2004  H5N1   
DQ083551    A/chicken/Bangkok/Thailand/CU-3/04             2004  H5N1   
DQ083554    A/chicken/Bangkok/Thailand/CU-6/04             2004  H5N1   
ISDN49117   A/chicken/Cambodia/7/2004                             2004  H5N1   
DQ083558    A/chicken/Chachoengsao/Thailand/CU-10/04 2004  H5N1   
DQ083559    A/chicken/Chachoengsao/Thailand/CU-11/04 2004  H5N1   
DQ083555    A/chicken/Chonburi/Thailand/CU-7/04              2004  H5N1   
DQ083580    A/chicken/Chonburi/Thailand/CU-73/04           2004  H5N1   
ISDN40925   A/Chicken/Laos/44/2004                                   2004  H5N1   
ISDN40922   A/Chicken/Laos/7191/2004                               2004  H5N1   
ISDN40923   A/Chicken/Laos/7192/2004                               2004  H5N1   
DQ083576    A/chicken/Lopburi/Thailand/CU-38/04             2004  H5N1   
ISDN80767   A/chicken/Malaysia/5858/04                             2004  H5N1   
DQ320934    A/chicken/Malaysia/5858/2004                        2004  H5N1   
DQ083562  A/chicken/Nakhon Pathom/Thailand/CU-14/04 2004  H5N1   
DQ083561    A/chicken/Nakhon Sawan/Thailand/CU-13/04 2004  H5N1   
DQ083577    A/chicken/Nakhon Sawan/Thailand/CU-39/04 2004  H5N1   
AY590568 A/chicken/Nakorn-Patom/Thailand/CU-K2/2004 2004  H5N1   
AY590576 A/chicken/Nakorn-Patom/Thailand/CU-K3/2004 2004  H5N1   
DQ083582    A/chicken/Prachinburi/Thailand/CU-104/04     2004  H5N1   
DQ083556    A/chicken/Prachinburi/Thailand/CU-8/04          2004  H5N1   
DQ083578    A/chicken/Ratchaburi/Thailand/CU-68/04        2004  H5N1   
DQ083565    A/chicken/Saraburi/Thailand/CU-17/04            2004  H5N1   
DQ083572    A/chicken/Saraburi/Thailand/CU-27/04            2004  H5N1   
DQ083550    A/chicken/Suphanburi/Thailand/CU-1/04          2004  H5N1   
DQ083557    A/chicken/Suphanburi/Thailand/CU-9/04          2004  H5N1   
ISDN49021   A/chicken/Thailand/2/04                                     2004  H5N1   
DQ076201    A/Chicken/Thailand/73/2004                             2004  H5N1   
AY651327    A/Chicken/Thailand/73/2004                              2004  H5N1   
AY649382    A/chicken/Thailand/CH-2/2004                          2004  H5N1   
AY779050    A/chicken/Thailand/CU-21/2004                        2004  H5N1   
AY590563    A/chicken/Thailand/CU-K1/2004                        2004  H5N1   
ISDN40909   A/Chicken/Viet Nam/1/2004                              2004  H5N1   
AY651343    A/Chicken/Viet Nam/C57/2004                          2004  H5N1   
DQ099759    A/chicken/Viet Nam/DT-171/2004                    2004  H5N1   
AY728894    A/chicken/Viet Nam/HauGiang-617/2004         2004  H5N1   
DQ099760    A/chicken/Viet Nam/LD-080/2004                    2004  H5N1   
DQ099758    A/chicken/Viet Nam/TG-023/2004                    2004  H5N1   
DQ099755    A/chicken/Viet Nam/TN-025/2004                    2004  H5N1   
DQ497718    A/chicken/Vietnam/132/2004                            2004  H5N1   
DQ497700    A/chicken/Vietnam/133/2004                            2004  H5N1   
DQ497714    A/chicken/Vietnam/134/2004                            2004  H5N1   
DQ497695    A/chicken/Vietnam/135/2004                            2004  H5N1   
DQ497701    A/chicken/Vietnam/147/2004                            2004  H5N1   
DQ497696    A/chicken/Vietnam/149/2004                            2004  H5N1   
DQ497713    A/chicken/Vietnam/159/2004                            2004  H5N1   
DQ497706    A/chicken/Vietnam/260/2004                            2004  H5N1   
DQ497687    A/chicken/Vietnam/32/2004                              2004  H5N1   
DQ497698    A/chicken/Vietnam/52/2004                              2004  H5N1   
DQ497710    A/chicken/Vietnam/53/2004                              2004  H5N1   
AY818136    A/chicken/Vietnam/C58/04                                 2004  H5N1   
DQ320937    A/chicken/Vietnam/DT171/2004                      2004  H5N1   
AY651326    A/Ck/Thailand/1/2004                                         2004  H5N1   
AY651328    A/Ck/Thailand/9.1/2004                                      2004  H5N1   
AY651337    A/Ck/Viet Nam/33/2004                                      2004  H5N1   
AY651338    A/Ck/Viet Nam/35/2004                                      2004  H5N1   
AY651339    A/Ck/Viet Nam/36/2004                                      2004  H5N1   
AY651340    A/Ck/Viet Nam/37/2004                                      2004  H5N1  
AY651341    A/Ck/Viet Nam/38/2004                                      2004  H5N1   
AY651342    A/Ck/Viet Nam/39/2004                                      2004  H5N1   
DQ182483    A/crested eagle/Belgium/01/2004                    2004  H5N1   
DQ083563    A/crow/Bangkok/Thailand/CU-15/04                2004  H5N1   
DQ083570    A/crow/Bangkok/Thailand/CU-25/04                2004  H5N1   
DQ083575    A/crow/Bangkok/Thailand/CU-35/04                2004  H5N1   
DQ083552    A/crow/Bangkok/Thailand/CU-4/04                  2004  H5N1   
AY651331    A/Dk/Thailand/71.1/2004                                   2004  H5N1   
AY651344    A/Dk/Viet Nam/11/2004                                     2004  H5N1   
DQ530173    A/dog/Thailand-Suphanburi/KU-08/04             2004  H5N1   
DQ083553    A/duck/Chonburi/Thailand/CU-5/04                 2004  H5N1   
AY737304    A/duck/Guangdong/173/04                                2004  H5N1   
DQ083579    A/duck/Nakhon Pathom/Thailand/CU-71/04   2004  H5N1   
DQ083581    A/duck/Saraburi/Thailand/CU-74/04                2004  H5N1   
AY779048    A/duck/Thailand/CU-2/2004                              2004  H5N1   
DQ099756    A/duck/Viet Nam/TG-007A/2004                     2004  H5N1   
DQ497702    A/duck/Vietnam/148/2004                                2004  H5N1   
DQ497684    A/duck/Vietnam/219/2004                                2004  H5N1   
DQ497685    A/duck/Vietnam/220/2004                                2004  H5N1   
DQ497683    A/duck/Vietnam/48/2004                                  2004  H5N1   
DQ497686    A/duck/Vietnam/N-XX/2004                             2004  H5N1   
ISDN49121   A/goose/Cambodia/28/2004                           2004  H5N1   
DQ497707    A/goose/Vietnam/264/2004                            2004  H5N1   
AY651332    A/Gs/Thailand/79/2004                                     2004  H5N1   
AJ867074    A/Hatay/2004                                                      2004  H5N1   
AY590569    A/kalij pheasant/Thailand/CU-4/2004             2004  H5N1   
DQ083566 A/Kalji Pheasant/Bangkok/Thailand/CU-18/04  2004  H5N1   
AY646175    A/leopard/Suphanburi/Thailand/Leo-1/04         2004  H5N1   
DQ320940    A/Mallard duck/Vietnam/133/2004                   2004  H5N1   
AY576930    A/muscovy duck/Vietnam/MdGL/2004              2004  H5N1   
DQ083585    A/Mynas/Ranong/Thailand/CU-209/04             2004  H5N1   
AY590577    A/openbill/Thailand/CU-2/2004                         2004  H5N1   
DQ083567    A/Ostrich/Samut Prakan/Thailand/CU-19/04  2004  H5N1   
DQ083574    A/ostrich/Samut Prakan/Thailand/CU-31/04   2004  H5N1   
DQ083583    A/pigeon/Samut Prakan/Thailand/CU-202/04 2004  H5N1   
DQ236085    A/pigeon/Thailand/KU-03/04                             2004  H5N1   
ISDN110940  A/Prachinburi/6231/2004                                 2004  H5N1   
AY651329    A/Qa/Thailand/57/2004                                      2004  H5N1   
DQ320935    A/quail/Malaysia/6309/2004                             2004  H5N1   
DQ099757    A/quail/Viet Nam/TG-007B/2004                     2004  H5N1   
DQ497715    A/quail/Vietnam/177/2004                                2004  H5N1   
AY818137    A/quail/Vietnam/36/04                                        2004  H5N1   
DQ083571    A/rollers/Bangkok/Thailand/CU-26/04            2004  H5N1   
DQ083584    A/sparrow/Phang-Nga/Thailand/CU-203/04   2004  H5N1   
AY555150    A/Thailand/1-KAN-1/2004                                  2004  H5N1   
ISDN40341   A/Thailand/16/2004                                            2004  H5N1   
AY555153    A/Thailand/2-SP-33/2004                                  2004  H5N1   
ISDN49460   A/Thailand/Chaiyaphum/622/2004                  2004  H5N1   
ISDN40918   A/Thailand/Kan353/2004                                  2004  H5N1   
AY679514    A/Thailand/LFPN-2004/2004                            2004  H5N1   
ISDN40917   A/Thailand/SP83/2004                                      2004  H5N1   
AY646167    A/tiger/Suphanburi/Thailand/Ti-1/04                 2004  H5N1   
AY842935    A/tiger/Thailand/CU-T3/2004                            2004  H5N1   
AY972539    A/tiger/Thailand/CU-T4/04                                 2004  H5N1   
AY972540    A/tiger/Thailand/CU-T5/04                                 2004  H5N1   
AY972541    A/tiger/Thailand/CU-T6/04                                 2004  H5N1   
AY866475    A/tiger/Thailand/CU-T7/2004                            2004  H5N1   
AY972542    A/tiger/Thailand/CU-T8/04                                2004  H5N1   
AY651333    A/Viet Nam/1194/2004                                     2004  H5N1   
ISDN38686   A/Viet Nam/1194/2004                                    2004  H5N1   
ISDN38687   A/Viet Nam/1203/2004                                    2004  H5N1   
AY651334    A/Viet Nam/1203/2004                                     2004  H5N1   
AY818135    A/Viet Nam/1203/2004                                     2004  H5N1   
ISDN38688   A/Viet Nam/1204/2004                                    2004  H5N1   
AY651335    A/Viet Nam/3046/2004                                     2004  H5N1   
AY651336    A/Viet Nam/3062/2004                                     2004  H5N1   
ISDN40278   A/Viet Nam/3212/2004                                    2004  H5N1   
ISDN69608   A/Viet Nam/JP178/2004                                 2004  H5N1   
DQ497719    A/Vietnam/CL01/2004                                     2004  H5N1   
DQ497720    A/Vietnam/CL02/2004                                     2004  H5N1   
DQ497725    A/Vietnam/CL100/2004                                   2004  H5N1   
DQ497721    A/Vietnam/CL17/2004                                     2004  H5N1   
DQ497722    A/Vietnam/CL20/2004                                     2004  H5N1   
DQ497723    A/Vietnam/CL26/2004                                     2004  H5N1   
DQ497724    A/Vietnam/CL36/2004                                     2004  H5N1   
DQ083564    A/white peafowl/Bangkok/Thailand/CU-16/04 2004  H5N1   
DQ083573    A/white peafowl/Bangkok/Thailand/CU-29/04 2004  H5N1   
DQ497678    A/chicken/Vietnam/19/2003                             2003  H5N1   
DQ497679    A/chicken/Vietnam/20/2003                             2003  H5N1   
DQ320938    A/chicken/Vietnam/27/2003                             2003  H5N1   
DQ497681    A/chicken/Vietnam/28/2003                            2003  H5N1   
DQ497682    A/chicken/Vietnam/30/2003                            2003  H5N1   
DQ497691    A/chicken/Vietnam/4/2003                              2003  H5N1   
DQ497692    A/chicken/Vietnam/5/2003                              2003  H5N1   
DQ497693    A/chicken/Vietnam/8/2003                              2003  H5N1   
AY651358    A/Ck/Hong Kong/YU324/2003                         2003  H5N1   
DQ497670    A/duck/Vietnam/15/2003                                2003  H5N1   
DQ497672    A/duck/Vietnam/17/2003                                2003  H5N1   
DQ497671    A/mallard/Vietnam/16/2003                            2003  H5N1   
DQ497690    A/mallard/Vietnam/3/2003                              2003  H5N1   
AY995885    A/mallard/Sweden/21/02                                 2002  H5N2  

Phylogenetic Trees

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