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Paradigm Shift Intervention Monitoring
Swine With PB1 E618D and H1N1pdm09 M Gene
The release of the sequences from the three Ohio swine (A/swine/Ohio/1/2012, A/swine/Ohio/6/2012, A/swine/Ohio/7/2012), identified a PB1 sequence in all three isolates which was closely related to the sequences from the human 2010 case and had E618D. All human variant sequences since 2010 have had a PB1 with E618D or an H1N1pdm09 M gene, but none had both changes (which are present in all human and swine H1N1pdm09 isolates).
Therefore, the presence of both changes in the June Ohio swine raises concerns that this combination will increase the potential for human adaptation and transmission. However, these isolates, like the first 10 human cases in 2011, have an NA lineage found in H1N2v swine, but all 2012 human cases (58 public sets of sequences) have had an N2 lineage found in H3N2v swine and first seen in human cases in the sequences from the 2011 West Virginia day care outbreak in Mineral county (A/West Virginia/06/2011 and A/West Virginia/07/2011).