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H1N1 Recombination and Reassortment In Swine In Thailand
Recombinomics Commentary 23:45
November 9, 2010

Recently released sequences from Thailand (A/swine/Thailand/CU-SA43/2010, A/swine/Thailand/CU-SA412/2010, A/swine/Thailand/CU-SA432/2010) are pH1N1 reassortants have a swine NA.  The NA sequence is related to previously isolated swine H1N1 sequences from Thailand as well as the human case, A/Thailand/271/2005, from 2005.  Thus, this reassortant constellation clonally expanded in Thailand.

However, the NP from A/swine/Thailand/CU-SA43/2010, is a recombinant sequence which has the swine H1N1 in the first third, which also has short stretches of avian sequences.  Thus, the NP sequence is a triple recombinant with avian, swine, and human (pH1N1) sequences.  This combination of genes highlights the role of swine as mixing vessels.  Reassortment and recombination require co-infection, and most of the NP sequence is linked to the two parental sequences which created the reassortants.

The reassortant and recombinant sequences highlights the dangers associated with pH1N1 from humans jumping back into swine.  Recent sequences from Argentina were also reassortants where the swine H and N of pH1N1 was replaced with human H and N genes from 2003.
The reassortants are likely candidates for jumping back into humans.  The sequences from Argentina have human H and N, and the ressortants in Thailand have an N closely related to the N previously isolated from a human in 2005.

The movement of pH1N1 sequences between humans and swine continue to increase pandemic concerns.

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