|Home||Founder||What's New||In The News||Consulting|
Paradigm Shift Intervention Monitoring
Live feed of underlying pandemic map data here
H1N1 RBD Changes D225G
and D225E in Norway
D225E is not as well characterized as D225G, which was in 1918/1919 isolates and was characterized in receptor binding studies which demonstrated that D225G targeted alpha 2,3 receptors, like those in lung, as well as alpha 2,6 receptors. D225G was also found in four of four fatal cases in Ukraine.
The finding of D225G in Norway (A/Norway/2924/2009) as a mixture with wild type sequences confirms that isolates with receptor binding domain changes can be circulating as mixtures and the sequence identified will be dependent on the tissue sampled and when it is sampled. Thus, Infections with a high frequency of D225G will likely be quickly cleared from the upper respiratory tract because viruses with D225G will quickly go to the lungs, which wild type sequences will be more quickly cleared from the upper respiratory tract. Thus a nasopharyngeal swab may be negative if all not cleared virus has moved to the lungs, or be positive for the wild type if depleted wild type H1N1 is remaining at the time of swabbing. Thus, the true level of D225G may be grossly under estimated by nasopharyngeal swabs, and the one sample positive for D225G may reflect the rare instances where D225G could still be detected in a nasopharyngeal swab.
These recent sequences provide additional data for widespread isolates with receptor binding domain changes at position 225, but the true distribution may require sampling more representative of virus that has infected the lower respiratory tract, including lung.