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Paradigm Shift Intervention Monitoring
trH1N2 HA NA MP
With Ohio H3N2pdm11 Parent
An analysis of H1N2 sequences are Genbank, which were collected after the start of the 2009 pandemic identified an increasing frequency of isolates with H1N1pdm M gene. A further analysis identified a subset of 30 isolates which had an H1N1pdm M gene, as well as an NA sequence that matched the lineage in H3N2pdm11.
Since the Ohio H1N2 sequence also had an H3N2pdm11match for PB1, the Genbank sequences were analyzed for an H1 match with , and 21 isolates were identified which matched the HA, NA, and MP lineage found in ohio (see list below), supporting widespread donor sequences in swine, which had all three gene segments acquired by H3N2pdm11. These matches included the 2010 isolates from South Dakota and Iowa. Indicating these donor sequences have been circulating in swine since late 2010, but the only H3N2pdm11 swine match was in a sample collected September 13 in New York, A/swine/NY/A01104005/2011.
The detection of a large number of H1N2 donor sequences throughout the Midwest, beginning in late 2010, suggests that the absence of H3N2pdm11 in swine isolates collected prior to the detection in humans in Indian and Pennsylvania supports spread in humans, leading to reassortants which exchange genes within the H3N2pdm11 sub-clade, which preserves the same lineages for all 8 gene segments.
The sequence identities in all 10 human H3N2pdm11 isolates, and paucity of such sequences in swine, signals a need for more aggressive surveillance in humans, including sequencing of influenza A positive samples from children under the age of ten.
HA, NA and MP Related To sw/OH/FAH10-1/10
CY078421 A/swine/South Dakota/2/2010
CY078424 A/swine/South Dakota/3/2010
CY081566 A/swine/South Dakota/4/2010